Astrology versus Astronomy
Astronomy is the study of the universe and its contents outside of Earth's atmosphere, such as planets, stars, asteroids, galaxies; and the properties and relationships of those celestial bodies. Astronomers examine the positions, motions, and properties of celestial objects. Astrology on the other hand attempts to study how those positions, motions, and properties affect people and events on Earth. For millennia, the desire to improve astrological predictions was one of the main motivations for astronomical observations and theories.
From Arader Galleries: Scenographia Compagis Mundane Brahe by Andreas Cellarius, 1660.
Astrology continued to be part of mainstream science until the late 1600s, when Isaac Newton demonstrated some of the physical processes by which celestial bodies affect each other. Since then, astronomy has evolved into a completely separate field, where predictions about celestial phenomena are made and tested using the scientific method. In contrast, astrology is now regarded as a pastime and a pseudoscience — though thousands of people around the world still invoke advice from astrologers and astrology publications in making important professional, medical, and personal experiences.
From Philadelphia Print Shop West: celestial map by Ludwig Preyssner, from Atronomischer Bilder-Atlas, circa 1850.
A zodiac is an imaginary belt of the heavens, extending about 8° on each side of the ecliptic, within which are the apparent paths of the sun, moon, and principal planets. In Western astrology, and formerly astronomy, the zodiac is divided into twelve signs, each occupying 30° of celestial longitude and roughly corresponding to the constellations Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.
From American Garage: circa 1930 large scale hand painted canvas astrological banner
A horoscope is an astrological chart or diagram representing the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, astrological aspects and sensitive angles at the time of an event, such as the moment of a person's birth. For many, a horoscope represents a forecast of a person's future, including a outline of their character and circumstances. Whether you're a believer or not, there is a fascinating appeal and intricate beauty to depictions of zodiacs throughout time.
Below from Earle D. Vandekar of Knightsbridge: Two zodiac porcelain plates (cancer and libra) by Piero Fornasetti, commissioned by and made for Corisia in the 1970's.